This is a guest article written by ANU-Ar for Best Delegate. Special thanks to ANU-AR, in particular to José María Cánepa for taking the time to write this article for our MUN community.
Planning on traveling to a conference abroad? Still have doubts on the procedure? Don’t worry! We have designed a whole series on MUN procedures around the world.
For our third article, we have looked upon one of the most divergent and interesting procedures in the world: The Argentinian procedure!
*This procedure can change among models and different conferences. Rules and procedures explained above are the ones used in the General Assembly committees in ANU-AR´s conferences. Debates are moderated by a Chairman and a Vice Chairman (the Board); both can drive the deliberations.
The discussion begins with a roll call of all the states present by alphabetical order. The only option for participants to say is “Present” (Nonetheless, delegates are still allowed to abstain during the voting process).
In some cases, the Assembly can vote the order of topics (habitually two); in other cases, the Chairman decides the order of them. None of the topics will remain without being debated. After the decision regarding the topics to be discussed, the Chairman will open a speakers list. All delegates who want to speak in the session must show their placards in order to be included in the list. The Board will name one by one all delegates which are habilitated for doing their statement in the Assembly. The order will be chosen by the Chairman.
The first Statement must have a maximum duration of two minutes and half. At the beginning, each delegate must use the “triangular dialogue” that means that the delegate must use a protocol formula for addressing to the Assembly across the Chairman. For example, delegate can say: “Mr. Chairman, across your authority Russian delegation would like to address to the Assembly”. The statement must have concepts that each delegation considers adequate, but it must always have relation with the topic in treatment. Subsequently, delegations may submit to one or two questions if they accept it. The delegation on the podium will have one minute to answer each question. Delegations have the option to answer or not any questions. If the delegation chose answer questions, the Chairman will ask to the other states ‘delegations to lift up their placards. The Chairman may choose any delegation to make the question. Delegations chosen will have one minute for formulating their question to the delegation in the podium; also, they are allowed to do an introduction of it.
Questions – and its introductions – must be related with the topic discussed. In contrary case, the Chairman may interrupt delegation that is speaking to reorder the debate according to the topic. All speakers – whom make questions and whom answer them – must respect the “triangular dialogue”.
If any delegate consideres that his question has not been answered, he may use the source of “subsequent”; this resource is asked by lifting up the placard and uttering aloud the word: “subsequent”. The Chairman will ask him the reasons/causes and thereafter he will decide if this resource is pertinent or not. If it’s pertinent, the Chairman will ask to the delegate in the podium if he wants to answer. The Delegate will have one minute to do so. Only one “subsequent” can be use by question. After answering questions, the delegation will be invited to return to its seat. The same procedure will have place with all delegations included in the list of speakers.
After all delegations have finished their statements -or in the middle of them if delegations want it – the Chairman may open a “moderated caucus”, which is an instance of debate where delegations can make statements between thirty seconds and one minute. Triangular dialogue is no required for this instance of debate. During the Moderated Caucus delegations will be able to deliver speeches from its seats, make comments, answer or ask questions to other delegations or to discuss measures for being included in the working sheet.
Delegations have two resources (motions) to address to the Chairman: point of order and point of procedure
- Point of order will be used when delegations want to change the order of the debate. It may be used to suggest a speaker answering more questions, to proceed to a moderated caucus, to expand the session, or to close it.
- Point of procedure is used to make the President aware of an improper procedure or to make questions about rules.
When the Chairman considers appropriate, he will open spaces for negotiation. These stages will be supervised by the authorities of the debate, but they will not intervene. In first instance, negotiations will be set in regional o ideological groups. Subsequently, inter-block negotiations may be developed, seeking to unify positions. The ultimate goal is to draw up a preliminary draft resolution.
Preliminary draft resolution (working sheets)
It must include preambulatory and operative clauses. In order to be presented to the Board, it must been endorsed by at least 20% of the attending delegations. The number of the delegates required will be previously announced by the authorities. Delegations can support only one working sheet, or not endorse any of them. By each working sheet, three delegations must be chosen among its supporters for defending the preliminary draft resolution in the Assembly.
Treatment of Preliminary draft resolution:
Delegations chosen must go to the podio in order to read the document; after that, they will have three minutes for explaining its ideas. Later on, they must answer five questions of the Assembly. This procedure will be repeated with each working sheet presented with the endorsement of at least a 20% of the attending delegations.
Finally, the Chairman will submit to vote the working sheets presented. The General Assembly will choose one to its posterior treatment in particular. The possibility of abstention is not allowed. The working sheet with more votes becomes a Draft Resolution or Resolution Project, which means that it will be discussed in particular form and delegations will be able to modify it.
The Chairman will open different times where delegates will be able to present amendments to the project. To present them, is necessary to have a number of endorsements, which will be previously announced by the Board. Delegations will be allowed to endorse no more than two amendments and to present only one. The Chairman will grant one or more times to present amendments. Each time, delegations have new opportunities to support other modifications or to present them.
Closed these instances, the Chairman will begin the particular debate. Delegations interested in speaking should lift up their placard. The Board will call interested delegations according to its own discretion. In the podium, delegations will be able to speak for about two minutes. “Triangular dialogue” is required for this instance.
Each delegation may use its time in three different forms:
- Presenting an amendment
- Making a comment about the project
- Answering questions proposed by Assembly.
In the particular case of presenting an amendment, the speaker will have two minutes to argue for his modification; after that, the amendment will be read and voted. Delegations may opt to vote “for”, “against” or “abstention”. If the amendment obtains more than 50% of votes, it will be approved. If it obtains the same majority “against”, it will be refused. If the amendment does not obtain a majority “for” or “against”, the Chairman will open a debate about the amendment where two delegates may speak “for” and “against”; delegates will speak from theirs seats and they will have one minute to do it. After this debate, the amendment will be voted again but in this case, “abstentions” will not be allowed. If the amendment obtains more votes “for” than “against”,it will be approved.
When the time established for the particular debate expires, the Chairman will proceed with the final vote to the draft. In that instance, voting will be nominal: the Chairman will appoint each delegation, and it should express its intention of voting “for”, “against” or “abstention”.If draft obtains more than 50 % of votes, it becomes a Resolution of General Assembly. Delegates can clap if they want to do it. Immediately after, Assembly will begin with the treatment of following topic.
Do you have any questions? Want to know more about the Argentinian procedure? Interested on Argentinian conferences? Feel free to comment bellow or email us. You can also contact ANU-AR through Facebook at www.facebook.com/modelo.anuar or via web site at www.anu-ar.org.
ANU-AR is a not-profit civil association whose main aim is to organize projects and activities to disseminate knowledge about international relations, contemporary history and different cultures in order to achieve a pacific, tolerant and sustainable world. We seek to raise awareness of current world’s problems and commit every citizen to peace, understanding the world as a big melting pot which can and must share life peacefully and harmoniously.
Why participate in ANU-AR´s conferences?
- Dynamic Debates: rules are few and simple.We privilege the role of delegates and the dynamic discussion instead of protocol rules.
- Committees and topics: our committees and topics are innovative and creative; therefore they are very attractive for experts Delegates. They are also replicated throughout Latin America.
- Authorities: ANU-AR has a permanent staff that is trained to answer to the highest standards of exigency.
- Academic Level: the high academic level of our models is the reason why the best continental delegates are present every year.
- Fair and quality evaluation: ANU-AR has developed its own system of evaluation and awards, which have given excellent results. ANU-AR´s philosophy regarding awards rests on pillars such as justice, the detailed assessment, academic and human excellence, precision of standards and the searching of a particular model of diplomat.